I have the same issue. When entering the daily menu, the list is empty, but the play button is still enabled. Curious, I just clicked on it. After the map loads, the top middle of the screen shows some counters. The debt amount lowers and credit rating increases over a period of time, but I'm unable to do anything (cannot plant a base). I can only observe the AI play, which it eventually does.
Some details from the log file below. It's worth noting that I do not have the Ceres DLC, so I don't know if that has any factor in it. I left the match after about a minute passed.
149:43 - Leaderboard entries retrieval failure: FAILURE_REASON_NOT_FOUND while trying to retrieve leaderboard information for: DailyChallenge01222017
149:44 - Setting GOG achievement: STARTED_A_DAILY_CHALLENGE
149:44 - Setting GOG achievement success
149:45 - [UI] HUDDirector::Awake
149:45 - [UI] HUDDirector::Start
149:45 - [Tachyon.NET] Tachyon report response received.
149:45 - [Tachyon.NET] Report transmit response success.
149:45 - CERES LOCATION
149:47 - [UI] HUDDirector::DoFirstUpdate
149:47 - [UI] HUDDirector::SetupGameCamera
149:47 - Playing track #0
150:27 - [Tachyon.NET] Tachyon upload response received.
150:27 - File uploaded with ID: <redacted>
151:01 - Compressing Replay file
151:01 - Closing replay file: <redacted>
151:01 - [OptionsSave] Saving: <redacted>
151:01 - Disconnecting clients
151:01 - [UI] HUDDirector::OnGameEnd
151:02 - [UI] HUDDirector::OnDestroy