I think that's because the term Roguelike has a fairly strict definition, while your other examples are just vague genres which don't necessarily resemble the games they're originally based on. In example, most modern FPS games are quite different from DOOM. Games which only vaguely resemble classic Roguelikes exist as well, but they tend to have their own genre labels, such as Rogue-lite.
I'd also add that the genre Metroidvania isn't really an amalgamation of two games, only its name is. Castlevania: Symphony of the Night and ( Super ) Metroid both share the same style of gameplay, which we now commonly call "Metroidvania" -- I think the term was coined because those were simply the best and most popular games in that style, and thus helped spawn a new genre.
Is Diablo-Clone still a thing? I think that term is still thrown around, for games in that style. Tetris-Clone, maybe?
I also wonder if publishers and devs prefer to avoid terms such as "GTA-Clone", for legal reasons. Besides, calling a game MOBA or FPS is probably better for advertising, rather than calling it a clone of some other game. ( Even if that's clearly what it is. )
They're not quite the same game but two sides of the same type of coin, hence why you still see the occassional clarification of whether a metroidvania weighs more heavily towards the metroid or the vania. That's what makes Rogue special as it's 'pure' enough as an example that a clear definition is possible, as the roguelite is now effectively a subgenre instead of overtaking the meaning of roguelike, like what happened to other genres.
As for Diablo-clone and Teris-clone, the first has mostly become arpg and the latter is weirdly accurate in that it's not a genre but used for games that are genuine Teris clones. As in, really just reskinned Tetris.
Publishers don't use clone terms I think less because of legal reasons and more because calling yourself derivative is never a good selling point. That's telling the consumer that the original is apparently good enough to make a clone of, so why not buy that instead - free marketing for a game you're competing with.