As far as I remember, no, that's the only such quest.
Well, time limited anyway.
MINOR SPOILERS AHEAD, READ AT YOUR OWN RISK. (also mind that my knowledge might be obsolete, seeing as I played the game years and versions ago)
The quest from the village's sheriff (I don't remember his name anymore) to kill some raider (Kranach, I think), is limited by your experience level - once you reach level six (I think), the raider gets afraid of you, and moves elsewhere.
That's a tutorial piece of sorts, btw, as there are at least two other locations (I think), which are level-limited. For at least one of them you're also told to hurry (in an invitation, no details, as I'll try to spare you at least some spoilers). The other one I think I never really cleared, and only went there once or twice, so can't tell you much about it (I don't remember how to find out about it, I think I "cheated" and looked it up on the Internet after I've read the location's name somewhere).
Other than that, the main quest is sort of time-sensitive: after I think 90 in-game days, the amount of background Chaos radiation increases, making you accumulate corruptions faster. I have no idea, if it's a one-time increase, or continuous and gradual one, though.
Post edited October 29, 2018 by piranha1